Over four-billion years in the making, an island adrift in southern seas:
Contemporary historian Ralph of Diceto traced his family's lineage through Matilda of Scotland to the Anglo-Saxon kings of England and Alfred the Greatand from there legend linked them to Noah and Woden. According to Angevin family tradition, there was even 'infernal blood' in their ancestry, with a claimed descent from the fairy, or female demon, Melusine.
His first recorded visit to the European continent was in Maywhen his mother took him to Normandy. One of the specific charges laid against Longchamp, by John's supporter Hugh, Bishop of Coventrywas that he could not speak English.
This indicates that by the late 12th century a knowledge of English was expected of those in positions of authority in England.
The Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardia Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusadestates that: He had long arms suited to wielding a sword. His long legs matched the rest of his body".
His elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime. Marriage alliances were common among medieval royalty: In March it was arranged that Richard would marry one of the daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona ; however, these arrangements failed, and the marriage never took place.
A peace treaty was secured in January and Richard's betrothal to Alys was confirmed. The life and times of richard the first the ceremony where Richard's betrothal was confirmed, he paid homage to the King of France for Aquitaine, thus securing ties of vassalage between the two.
In June Richard was formally recognised as the Duke of Aquitaine when he was granted the lance and banner emblems of his office; the ceremony took place in Poitiers and was repeated in Limoges, where he wore the ring of St Valeriewho was the personification of Aquitaine.
Revolt of —74 According to Ralph of CoggeshallHenry the Young King instigated rebellion against Henry II; he wanted to reign independently over at least part of the territory his father had promised him, and to break away from his dependence on Henry II, who controlled the purse strings.
Louis gave his support to the three sons and even knighted Richard, tying them together through vassalage. The brothers also had supporters ready to rise up in England. Eleanor was captured, so Richard was left to lead his campaign against Henry II's supporters in Aquitaine on his own.
He marched to take La Rochelle but was rejected by the inhabitants; he withdrew to the city of Sainteswhich he established as a base of operations. The army proceeded to recapture Dol and subdued Brittany.
At this point Henry II made an offer of peace to his sons; on the advice of Louis the offer was refused. Louis was defeated and a peace treaty was signed in September the Treaty of Montlouis.
Eleanor remained Henry II's prisoner until his death, partly as insurance for Richard's good behaviour. The King travelled to Anjou for this purpose, and Geoffrey dealt with Brittany.
In January Richard was dispatched to Aquitaine to punish the barons who had fought for him. The historian John Gillingham notes that the chronicle of Roger of Howden is the main source for Richard's activities in this period.
This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible in the eyes of the Churchbut Henry prevaricated: The increasing cruelty of his rule led to a major revolt there in Hoping to dethrone Richard, the rebels sought the help of his brothers Henry and Geoffrey.
The turning point came in the Charente Valley in the spring of The well-defended fortress of Taillebourg seemed impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or lines of retreat.
The garrison sallied out of the castle and attacked Richard; he was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard the Lionheart's victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons from thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty to him.
It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander. The excessive cruelty of Richard's punitive campaigns aroused even more hostility. After Richard had subdued his rebellious barons he again challenged his father.
Richard's barons joined in the fray and turned against their duke. However, Richard and his army succeeded in holding back the invading armies, and they executed any prisoners. The conflict paused briefly in June when the Young King died.1.
The life and times of Richard the First, surnamed Coeur-de-Lion, King of England: 1. Curated by Shawn "JAY Z" Carter, JAY Z's Life+Times is a digital experience covering art, sports, music, fashion and culture.
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