The symbolic first meeting of American and Soviet soldiers occurred at Torgau, Ger. Their handshakes and toasts in beer and vodka celebrated their common victory over Nazi Germany and marked the collapse of old Europe altogether; but their… Origins of the Cold War Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in May near the close of World War IIthe uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the one hand and the Soviet Union on the other began to unravel. By the Soviets had installed left-wing governments in the countries of eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Red Army.
Print this page Introduction At the mid-point of a century that had already seen two appallingly destructive and costly global conflicts, a savage war broke out in a remote country at the extremity of the Asian landmass.
During the world war ofthe future of the Japanese empire was decided at Allied summit meetings. In the short term, pending the return of Korean independence, Korea, a Japanese colony sincewas to be occupied north of the 38th parallel by Soviet Russia.
To the south, a United States military administration under the direction of General Douglas MacArthur would control the area from its headquarters in Tokyo. In the South, the chaotic political situation resulted in an American-backed administration under the presidency of Syngman Rhee, whose openly declared aim was the imposition of national unity by force.
As a result of this stance, the American-trained South Korean army was limited to a lightly armed gendarmerie, lacking tanks, combat aircraft and all but a small amount of field artillery. The North Koreans advanced rapidly south, aiming to take the vital port of Pusan.
After several years of increasingly bloody frontier incidents along the 38th parallel, the Republic of Korea was invaded by the North Korean Peoples' Army on 25 June Despite earlier indications, the Pentagon was caught off-guard.
This was done and member states were called on to send in military assistance. The first American troops were then sent in to stiffen resistance against the invader. The British government responded at once and elements of the Far East Fleet were soon in action along the Korean coast, together with ships of Commonwealth navies.
However, the North Koreans still advanced rapidly south, aiming to take the vital port of Pusan. Furthermore, a strong brigade group was mobilised in England and several thousand reservists were recalled to active duty.
The 29th Brigade set sail in Octoberreaching Korea a month later just as it seemed that the war was over. Their communications cut, and under heavy aerial bombardment, the North Koreans broke and fled back north; MacArthur ordered a hot pursuit which led across the 38th parallel and deep into North Korea.
As the victorious UN forces drew near to the Manchurian border, there were ominous signals from Peking that communist China would intervene to defend its territory. No sooner had this been launched in November than the Chinese unleashed their armies.
The UN forces recoiled in disorder and, by the new year, were defending a line well to the south of Seoul, the capital of South Korea. Morale was low but the new field commander, General Ridgway, revived his heterogeneous command and advanced slowly north in the spring of By mid-April, the allies were back in the area of the 38th parallel when the Chinese launched their spring offensive.
The British 29th Brigade narrowly escaped annihilation on the Imjin river as the 27th Commonwealth brigade on the central front beat off savage Chinese attacks. The UN line held, then moved north again.
This time, there was no reckless advance into the north. The line stabilised in the general area of the 38th parallel and the remaining two years of fighting consisted of near-static operations as both sides fought from heavily fortified positions, using artillery, mines and wire to deny the enemy access to strategically important ground.
Throughout the war, air power was decisive. Heavy bombers razed the cities and industrial plants of North Korea. Continuous attacks on the transport system forced the Chinese to rely on the packhorse for much of their logistical support.
A new phase of air war opened when American B bombers and their fighter escorts were challenged by Russian-built MiG fighters flown by Chinese airmen. The MiG's outflew first-generation American jet fighters until the introduction of the swept-wing F Sabre tipped the balance.
In the world's first supersonic air combats, the Americans prevailed. For the rest of the war, American, British, Commonwealth and other allied ships maintained a tight blockade on North Korea.
In addition, naval aviation played a leading role in air support of the army on the ground.The unification of Germany, liberalization of Eastern Europe, and the withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Afghanistan led to the end of the Cold War.
The United States of America thus came the only superpower . Impacts of the Cold War. The Cold War had a lot of impacts on both states and the entire world. Korean War In South Korea: (한국전쟁, 6·25 전쟁) In North Korea: (조국해방전쟁); Part of the Cold War and the inter-Korean conflict: Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S.
1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in. The Korean War erupted on June 25, in the middle of the burgeoning Cold War, an international struggle between the US and the USSR for world domination of their competing ideologies, Democracy/Capitalism versus Communism.
While the Soviet Union never got directly involved in the fighting, it did supply North Korea with weapons and supplies. The advent of the Cold War in the s led to Stalin tightening his grip on his sphere of influence in eastern and southeastern Europe.
Russian was imposed as the main foreign language, and Russian economic experience was copied. A major contribution to our understanding of Chinese Cold War history. Chen Jian's unrivaled control of the new and plentiful Chinese source materials is evident throughout, as an inspiration to other scholars in .
Theories of the cold war that stress the imperatives of the American domestic politico-economic system or the requirements of bipolarity are undermined by the argument that the Korean war strongly influenced international history and indeed brought about most of the characteristics which we .