The essays urging ratification

Leeds suffered nine air-raids over the duration of the war with its heaviest on the night of 14 and 15 March when forty bombers attacked the city centre. Incendiary and high explosive bombs destroyed around houses killing 65 people. However Belinksky was injured by a falling bomb and died 17 days later.

The essays urging ratification

They argued that the Constitution was a " compact " or agreement among the states. Therefore, the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it. If the federal government assumed such powers, its acts could be declared unconstitutional by the states.

So, states could decide the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress. Kentucky's Resolution 1 stated: A key provision of the Kentucky Resolutions was Resolution 2, which denied Congress more than a few penal powers by arguing that Congress had no authority to punish crimes other than those specifically named in the Constitution.

The Alien and Sedition Acts were asserted to be unconstitutional, and therefore void, because they dealt with crimes not mentioned in the Constitution: The Virginia Resolution of also relied on the compact theory and asserted that the states have the right to determine whether actions of the federal government exceed constitutional limits.

The Virginia Resolution introduced the idea that the states may "interpose" when the federal government acts unconstitutionally, in their opinion: That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government as resulting from the compact to which the states are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact, as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that, in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states, who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose, for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining, within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties, appertaining to them.

History of the Resolutions[ edit ] There were two sets of Kentucky Resolutions. The Kentucky state legislature passed the first resolution on November 16, and the second on December 3, Jefferson wrote the Resolutions.

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The author of the Resolutions is not known with certainty. The Virginia state legislature passed it on December 24, The Kentucky Resolutions of stated that acts of the national government beyond the scope of its constitutional powers are "unauthoritative, void, and of no force".

While Jefferson's draft of the Resolutions had claimed that each state has a right of " nullification " of unconstitutional laws, [5] that language did not appear in the final form of those Resolutions.

Rather than purporting to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Resolutions called on the other states to join Kentucky "in declaring these acts void and of no force" and "in requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress". Jefferson at one point drafted a threat for Kentucky to secede, but dropped it from the text.

The Resolutions used the term " nullification ", which had been deleted from Jefferson's draft of the Resolutions, resolving: Rather, the Resolutions declared that Kentucky "will bow to the laws of the Union" but would continue "to oppose in a constitutional manner" the Alien and Sedition Acts.

The Resolutions concluded by stating that Kentucky was entering its "solemn protest" against those Acts. The Virginia Resolution did not refer to "nullification", but instead used the idea of " interposition " by the states.

The Resolution stated that when the national government acts beyond the scope of the Constitution, the states "have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose, for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining, within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties, appertaining to them".

The Virginia Resolution did not indicate what form this "interposition" might take or what effect it would have.

The Virginia Resolutions appealed to the other states for agreement and cooperation. Numerous scholars including Koch and Ammon have noted that Madison had the words "void, and of no force or effect" excised from the Virginia Resolutions before adoption.

Madison later explained that he did this because an individual state does not have the right to declare a federal law null and void. Rather, Madison explained that "interposition" involved a collective action of the states, not a refusal by an individual state to enforce federal law, and that the deletion of the words "void, and of no force or effect" was intended to make clear that no individual state could nullify federal law.

Rather, nullification was described as an action to be taken by "the several states" who formed the Constitution. The Kentucky Resolutions thus ended up proposing joint action, as did the Virginia Resolution.

As they had been shepherded to passage in the Virginia House of Delegates by John Taylor of Caroline[8] they became part of the heritage of the " Old Republicans ".

Taylor rejoiced in what the House of Delegates had made of Madison's draft: Future Virginia Governor and U.

Secretary of War James Barbour concluded that "unconstitutional" included "void, and of no force or effect", and that Madison's textual change did not affect the meaning. Madison himself strongly denied this reading of the Resolution.

Responses of other states[ edit ] The resolutions were submitted to the other states for approval, but with no success. Seven states formally responded to Kentucky and Virginia by rejecting the Resolutions [10] and three other states passed resolutions expressing disapproval, [11] with the other four states taking no action.

No other state affirmed the resolutions. At least six states responded to the Resolutions by taking the position that the constitutionality of acts of Congress is a question for the federal courts, not the state legislatures.

The essays urging ratification

For example, Vermont's resolution stated:The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in and , in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare as unconstitutional those acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution.

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The essays urging ratification

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid through late , and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics.

The following is a list of the classic books and other works on constitutional government, which we either include in our collection, or plan to add. The Second Amendment of the United States allows: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.".

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Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions - Wikipedia