An unseen and fearful revolution is taking place in the fiber and structure of society. One can only dimly feel these things, but they are in the air, now, today. Terrible forces seemed out of control and the nation seemed imperiled.
Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies".
Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than casualties,  while others further specify that at least must come from each side.
This includes civil wars; however, no specific definition of civil war is provided in the text of the Conventions. Tanks in the streets of Addis Ababa after rebels seized the capital during the Ethiopian Civil War Nevertheless, the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventionsnoting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows: That the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory. Causes According to a review study of civil war research, there are three prominent explanations for civil war: Scholarly analysis supports the conclusion that economic and structural factors are more important than those of identity in predicting occurrences of civil war.
The study framework, which came to be called the Collier—Hoeffler Model, examined 78 five-year increments when civil war occurred from toas well as 1, five-year increments of "no civil war" for comparison, and subjected the data set to regression analysis to see the effect of various factors.
The factors that were shown to have a statistically significant effect on the chance that a civil war would occur in any given five-year period were: When disaggregated, only petroleum and non-petroleum groupings showed different results: The authors of the study interpreted this as being the result of the ease by which primary commodities may be extorted or captured compared to other forms of wealth; for example, it is easy to capture and control the output of a gold mine or oil field compared to a sector of garment manufacturing or hospitality services.
The study interpreted these three factors as proxies for earnings forgone by rebellion, and therefore that lower forgone earnings encourage rebellion.
However, for this to be true, one would expect economic inequality to also be a significant factor in rebellions, which it is not. The study therefore concluded that the economic model of opportunity cost better explained the findings.
Only ethnic dominance, the case where the largest ethnic group comprises a majority of the population, increased the risk of civil war. A country characterized by ethnic dominance has nearly twice the chance of a civil war.
However, the combined effects of ethnic and religious fractionalization, i. The study interpreted this as stating that minority groups are more likely to rebel if they feel that they are being dominated, but that rebellions are more likely to occur the more homogeneous the population and thus more cohesive the rebels.
These two factors may thus be seen as mitigating each other in many cases. Commitment problems may deter a lasting peace agreement as the powers in question are aware that neither of them is able to commit to their end of the bargain in the future.
Walter argues that when these issues are properly reversed, they act as political and legal restraints on executive power forcing the established government to better serve the people. Additionally, these political and legal restraints create a standardized avenue to influence government and increase the commitment credibility of established peace treaties.
Both of these factors favor rebels, as a population dispersed outward toward the borders is harder to control than one concentrated in a central region, while mountains offer terrain where rebels can seek sanctuary.
The study had two possible explanations for this: The elapsed time may represent the depreciation of whatever capital the rebellion was fought over and thus increase the opportunity cost of restarting the conflict.
Alternatively, elapsed time may represent the gradual process of healing of old hatreds. The study found that the presence of a diaspora substantially reduced the positive effect of time, as the funding from diasporas offsets the depreciation of rebellion-specific capital.
He found that polygyny greatly increased the frequency of civil wars but not interstate wars.The two major political parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, seemed unable to deal with these new challenges.
Part of the problem was regional. In the past, politicians of both parties had focused on achieving national unity, working to smooth over the differences between North and South. APUSH TEST!
You have to pass this kid. STUDY. PLAY. The most famous political machine of the late nineteenth century was. Tammey Hall.
Which of the following was NOT part of the Republican party's platform in the post-Civil War period? decentralized government power.
The first state commisions. The many problems associated with the Gilded Age—the rise of unprecedented fortunes and unprecedented poverty, controversies over imperialism, urban squalor, a near-war between capital and labor, loosening social mores, unsanitary food production, the onrush of foreign immigration, environmental destruction, and the outbreak of political.
It emerged as a major party only after the Civil War.
Which of the following statements regarding the Tammany Hall political machine is incorrect? welfare organizations. The text compares political machines to vast The ideological groups, or reform clubs, of the s and s gave rise to ideological parties composed of.
the United. Politicians An enormous range of beliefs flowed across the political landscape of pre-Civil War America, and this is reflected in the rise and fall of a dozen different political parties that tried and failed to find a unifying political strategy that would end sectional strife.
As Republicans had done since the end of the Civil War, Garfield and Arthur initially focused their campaign on the "bloody shirt"—the idea that returning Democrats to office would undo the victory of the Civil War and reward secessionists.