Professiona and Amateur Sports Compare and Contrast: Professiona and Amateur Sports In the United States, both college and professional sports have been put on a pedestal in our culture. Although similar, there are many more differences between collegiate athletics and professional sports.
Wasting syndrome due to HIV. Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus infection Clinical assessment. Monitoring the CD4 count. This is now possible with combination therapy[ 14 ]. Management[ 15 ] People with HIV infection and their families need a great deal of support, as well as monitoring and drug treatment for the patient.
Management also includes the treatment of any specific complications of HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy is now recommended for all patients who have been diagnosed as having HIV infection[ 16 ].
Increasing evidence from systematic reviews and cohort analyses also indicates that untreated HIV infection may be associated with the development of several non-AIDS-defining conditions, including cardiovascular, kidney and liver disease, several types of cancer and neurocognitive disorders and that initiating ART earlier reduces such events and improves survival.
Co-existing viral hepatitis[ 18 ] The treatment of HIV in patients with co-existing viral hepatitis is extremely complex.
Recent guidance recommends that: ART choice should take into consideration pre-existing liver disease but ART should not be delayed because of a risk of drug-induced liver injury. ART should be used with close monitoring in patients with end-stage liver disease and consideration given to performing plasma level monitoring of ART agents.
Some agents should be used differently in patients with co-existing viral hepatitis - see guidelines. Innovative agents have been developed for patients with co-existing hepatitis C and new treatments are being approved on a regular basis.
Drug treatment[ 16 ] ART may cause lipodystrophy syndrome which includes fat redistribution, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Preferred initial therapy is usually three drugs: Other drugs are used in particular circumstances see treatment guidelines.
Other measures[ 1519 ] Immunise against hepatitis B, pneumococcal disease and Haemophilus influenzae type b and possibly influenza and hepatitis A. Because of immunosuppression, HIV patients should not receive BCG vaccination, yellow fever, oral typhoid or live oral polio immunisations.
Chemoprophylaxis Chemoprophylaxis is used to prevent infection in HIV-positive patients[ 192021 ]. Primary chemoprophylaxis is used when the CD4 lymphocyte count drops below a certain level, making opportunistic infection likely.
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