Internal Colony or Internal Periphery? Appalachian Consortium Press, A similar argument appeared in David S. In the course of the 's, Appalachia was rediscovered as a social problem region. In response to the inadequacy of these models, and the social policy that followed from them, radical intellectuals and activists developed an internal colonialism model for the Central Appalachian region.
My conclusion is that Central Appalachia is best characterized as a peripheral region within an advanced capitalist society. Each of the three current models was first developed in the context of underdevelopment in the Third World and later applied by analogy to the Appalachian case.
I will summarize and criticize these models, suggest possible grounds for a synthesis, and argue for the alternative formulation suggested above.
The Subculture of Poverty Model The subculture of poverty model identifies the internal deficiencies of the lower-class subculture as the cause of the problem.
Studies of Appalachian culture in these terms include works by psychiatrist David Looff, social worker Norman Polansky, and sociologist Richard Ball. The methodological approach in the works of Weller, Looff, and Polansky, for example, imports sociological or psychiatric categories and focuses on the pathological.
They overgeneralize from problem families to the culture of one or more social classes. They fail to distinguish between the traditional Southern Appalachian subculture and a contemporary subculture of poverty.
The subculture of poverty model in general has been subjected to devastating criticism.
But the subculture of poverty model was not a major influence on the state and federal planners who devised the Appalachian Regional Development Act of The Regional Development Model Although the literature on development includes disciplines from social psychology to social ecology, the most influential stream derives from neoclassical economics as amended by central place theory.
Niles Hansen is probably the best-known academic proponent of this approach. More significantly, this model has a political base in the multi-county Local Development Districts established under the ARC program. The LLDs serve primarily as a mechanism for arriving at consensus among regional elites.
Through the dual federal-state structure of the ARC, the interests of regional and national elites are reconciled. Actions taken by regional and national planners are defended as technical decisions, rather than political choices among alternative courses of development.
The most important decisions are the "non-decisions": In reaction to this obvious shortcoming, radical academics and activists looked for a model that emphasized inequality and exploitation.
In the exposition by Suzanne Bodenheimer, two examples of the infrastructure of dependency are the patterns of dependent industrialization and the formation of clientele social classes.China's demand for raw materials will stimulate the development in resource-based countries.
The upgrading of the Chinese exports structure will also be beneficial for two groups of countries.
One group consists of countries such as Vietnam, which will replace China in the exporting of low-end products. North America and Europe, while most LDCs are further to the south, in Africa, Asia, and central and South America.
The North/South divide is not absolute in a geographical sense. The economic factor is the most objective distinction between North and South. Prepared for conference on “International Inequality: Then and Now,” Watson Center, Brown University, April 4 and 5, Dependency and Development in Latin America, by Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Enzo Faletto, was a seminal work in the scholarly literature on Latin America.
B) Latin America experienced a spurt of economic growth fueled by the increasing demand for raw materials, foodstuffs, and tropical crops.
C) Although the demand in industrialized countries for raw materials fell off, the slump in exports was more than overcome by a dramatic surge in industrial production and export.
The aims of these campaigns reflect in turn Nazi interests in Spain, from protecting economic assets in the Peninsula, to ensuring the supply of raw materials to the war effort, and turning Spain into a bridgehead for German interests in North Africa and Latin America. An examination of the domestic and international implications of the development of mass media and telecommunications and the differential impact of the free flow of technology and information.
Prerequisite: 75 units, including CMNS or , and CMNS or