Where are the Women? States have devised sets of learning standards that describe what students are expected to know and be able to do at specific stages of education. The report and analysis finds that women's experiences and stories are not well integrated into US state history standards. The lack of representation and context in state-level materials presupposes that women's history is even less represented at the classroom level.
Dutch women were reportedly independent and capable entrepreneurs, conducting business either in their own name, or that of their absent spouses.
To what extent these frequently repeated observations reflect historical reality is still not clear. There is evidence that the economic success of the Dutch Republic is reflected in the position of women on the labour market. Two opposite hypotheses can be formulated. According to some historians female labour market participation in the Dutch Republic was lower than in neighboring countries.
The economic prosperity and the high standard of living enabled the practical realization of the ideal of domesticity.
Many women could afford not to work, and withdrew from the labour market as early as in the seventeenth century. According to the second, opposite hypothesis female labour market participation in the Dutch Republic was higher than elsewhere. Dutch gender norms were not very strict, women performed paid work on a large scale, and thus contributed to the increase of income and the standard of living and to the economic success of the Dutch Republic.
The programme also aims to document the history of working women between c. We will address the following questions: To what extent was female participation influenced by economic specialisation, restrictive rules or a developing culture of domesticity? The research methods of the programme will be comparative.
Secondly, a geographical comparison will be undertaken. The selection of towns and regions throughout the Republic will enable us to uncover regional differences. Finally, the research findings will be placed in an international context.
The proposed research will offer the opportunity to systematically examine the participation of women in the labour market, to identify changes and to compare data from different regions, over a long period of time.
The programme consists of the following research projects: An exploration of the legal status of female public vendor pdf attached - Marjolein van Dekken, Female brewers in Holland and England doc file, attached - Danielle van den Heuvel, Women and work in the early modern Netherlands: Werkende vrouwen in de Nederlandse dranknijverheid, Jaarboek der economische en sociale geschiedenis van Leiden en omstreken Historisch tijdschrift, vol 3, no 2, Continuity and Change Vrouwen en loonarbeid in de Nederlandse textielnijverheid, Female traders in the Northern Netherlands c.Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
"The Equal Rights Amendment: Unfinished Business for the Constitution" (video) This minute educational video (5-minute excerpt below) traces the changing status of women's rights in the United States from the writing of the Constitution to the year struggle for woman suffrage to the ongoing campaign for the ERA.
Those manifold events which mark the change from the mediæval to the modern era, necessarily affected the status of woman. The invention of printing, and with it the diffusion of learning, the discovery of gunpowder, and the changed modes of warfare, the Reformation and its emphasis on the rights of the individual – each of these was.
But the Women’s Rights Movement has clearly been successful in irrevocably changing the circumstances and hopes of women. The remaining injustices are being tackled daily in the courts and conference rooms, the homes and organizations, workplaces and playing fields of America.
Women's status was thus increasingly devalued, though the forms in which this happened became increasingly different with the growth of class divisions.
71 These are some of the possible factors accounting for the evolution of a male‑dominated society many many moons ago. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.