In some studies, it was difficult to separate these factors because there are collinear relationships between such variables as SES, family size, and educational level of parents. There was also considerable overlap between the studies in this section and others, because almost all of the studies in this review examined some sociodemographic variables. Initiation and prevalence of smoking among adolescents typically rise with increasing age and grade—for example, refs Adolescents who began smoking at a younger age were more likely to become regular smokers 34 and less likely to quit smoking.
Social and physical environments2,7 The way mass media show tobacco use as a normal activity can promote smoking among young people.
Youth are more likely to use tobacco if they see that tobacco use is acceptable or normal among their peers.
High school athletes are more likely to use smokeless tobacco than their peers who are non-athletes. Biological and genetic factors1,2,9 There is evidence that youth may be sensitive to nicotine and that teens can feel dependent on nicotine sooner than adults.
Genetic factors may make quitting smoking more difficult for young people.
There is a strong relationship between youth smoking and depression, anxiety, and stress. Expectations of positive outcomes from smoking, such as coping with stress and controlling weight, are related to youth tobacco use.
They include the following: Higher costs for tobacco products for example, through increased taxes 2,7,10 Prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of worksites and public places2,7,10 Raising the minimum age of sale for tobacco products to 21 years, which has recently emerged as a potential strategy for reducing youth tobacco use11 TV and radio commercials, posters, and other media messages targeted toward youth to counter tobacco product advertisements2,7,10 Community programs and school and college policies and interventions that encourage tobacco-free environments and lifestyles2,8,10 Community programs that reduce tobacco advertising, promotions, and availability of tobacco products2,7,10 Some social and environmental factors have been found to be related to lower smoking levels among youth.
Department of Health and Human Services.
|In addition to draining his finances, his pack-a-day habit was killing his stamina.|
|Smoking by mothers causes a range of disadvantages for the future lives of their baby; it is linked with lower IQ and ADHD|
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|Unlike traditional advertising, media depictions of legal drugs are generally positive and invite no criticism, because they are not viewed as advertising.|
|Social Impact and Effects of Marijuana||August 21,University of Pennsylvania The way things stand now, tobacco use will kill one billion people in the 21st century. In the United States, 90 percent of smokers pick up the habit by age 18, making adolescence a critical time for smoking-prevention efforts.|
A Report of the Surgeon General.Despite falling rates in adolescent smoking over the past decade, % report smoking cigarettes in the past month and almost half (%) have ever tried smoking . Over 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence .
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents.
More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising. Approximately million middle and high school students were current tobacco users in 1 Although tobacco use by adolescents has declined substantially in the last 40 years, in , less than one in 25 high school seniors was a daily smoker.
2 Substantial racial/ethnic and regional differences in smoking rates exist. According to the Monitoring the Future study, nearly half of all teenagers have tried smoking, as have 20% of all 8th-graders.
21 Cigarette advertising seems to increase teenagers' risk of smoking by glamorizing smoking and smokers. 3,20 Smokers are depicted as young, independent, rebellious, healthy, and adventurous.
By contrast, the adverse consequences of smoking are never shown. Youth & Society, v43 n1 p Mar A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking.
The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship.
Smoking cessation, maintenance, and relapse experiences among pregnant and postpartum adolescents: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, doi: Results of a qualitative study of smoking among pregnant adolescents.
Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, Google Scholar, Youth & Society /X