Longino has clearly articulated the methodological plurality of research on human behavior. White, College of Mount St. She convincingly shows that we need not pick winners and losers among the approaches, but rather can think constructively about the relationship between those approaches. A Journal of Feminist Philosophy "Worth reading for anyone interested in feminist philosophy of science, philosophy of biology, or social epistemology.
Abstract This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression.
Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. Neither study design twin vs.
Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Are all humans innately and equally capable of inflicting harm on others? Do we learn by our various experiences to manipulate and even harm others for our own personal gain; or conversely, to be kind and benevolent, offering help even at costs to ourselves?
Although these fundamental questions pertaining to the nature of human aggression have plagued scientists and laypersons for centuries, some answers can be found in research spanning the last few decades. The early experiments of Milgram made it clear that, under certain circumstances, individuals can be coaxed into aggression and violence.
The infamous Stanford prison experiment Haney et al. Yet, while these powerful studies revealed the importance of social factors in inducing aggressive behaviors, not all individuals responded in an equally aggressive manner.
Many of those who engaged in the aggressive behavior stated they were very uncomfortable doing so, and every participant reportedly questioned the experiment at some point or refused money promised for their study participation Milgram, Although the studies by Milgram and Zimbardo provide clear evidence for the role of environment and social situations in affecting aggressive behavior, there are, nonetheless, large individual differences in the propensity for violence and aggression, even under these extreme circumstances.
What factors contribute to individual differences in aggression? Twin and adoption studies agree with the experimental literature on aggression, which shows that a large effect of environmental factors is evident, particularly of the nonshared variety.
Yet, there is also plenty of evidence, based on a variety of definitions of aggressive behavior from children to adults, for genetic propensity toward aggression see reviews by Burt, ; Miles and Carey, ; Rhee and Waldman, Consistent with the early findings of Milgram and Zimbardo, individual genetic predispositions should moderate the extent to which aggression can be elicited, even in extreme situations such as these infamous studies.
Our view is that while many, if not most, humans may have the potential for aggression and violence under the right circumstances, not all individuals will succumb to these behaviors under the same circumstances. This chapter will review recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression, with particular attention to several key questions and issues.
We first consider how estimates of the relative importance of genetic effects i. As detailed in other chapters of this volume, there are numerous definitions of aggression. Some definitions distinguish between reactive and proactive forms Dodge et al.
Some definitions may include extreme criminal violence, such as assault, rape, and murder, although these extreme behaviors are relatively rare and have not been studied extensively in genetically informative designs.
Measures of aggression can include self-reporting, teacher and parent reports particularly for young childrenand official records from schools or the justice system.
This review focuses on twin and sibling adoption studies of aggressive behavior measured as a trait within the wider population. We compare effect sizes heritability across these various definitions and ways of measuring aggression.
We also consider how heritability estimates may vary across both age and gender. Given higher levels of aggression in males across the lifespan, one obvious question concerns whether genetic propensities are of greater importance in one sex and how these differences might vary across age.
Finally, we briefly review evidence for specific genetic influences in aggression by summarizing some of the more recent findings from molecular genetic studies. Twin and Adoption Studies Behavioral genetic research relies on the different levels of genetic relatedness between family members in order to estimate the relative contribution of heritable and environmental factors to individual differences in a phenotype of interest.
Major research designs include: Although designs combining both approaches are the most powerful for separating genetic and environmental effects in human behavior, such studies of twins separated at birth and raised apart are rare and have not studied aggressive behavior extensively.
Nonetheless, there are a handful of adoption studies and over two dozen studies of twins raised together which have specifically examined the genetic and environmental influence in aggression in nonselected samples from Northern America and Europe that are reasonably representative of the general population.
By comparing the resemblance for aggressive behavior between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the total phenotypic variance of aggression can be divided into additive genetic factors or heritability, h2shared environmental factors c2and nonshared environmental factors e2.
Shared environmental factors refer to nongenetic influences that contribute to similarity within pairs of twins.
Nonshared environmental factors are those individual experiences that cause siblings to differ in their levels of aggressive behavior. Heritability is the proportion of total phenotypic variance due to genetic variation Neale and Cardon, Genetic influences may also be divided into those that are additive i.Learned behavior and deindividuation are two causes for aggression linked to social aspects of life, while social reinforcement is a strong cause of aggression linked to the general culture in.
“The research demonstrates a consistent relation between violent video game use and increases in aggressive behavior, aggressive cognitions and aggressive affect, and decreases in prosocial behavior, empathy and sensitivity to aggression,” says the report of the APA Task Force on Violent Media.
Oct 19, · The Bobo Doll study (Bandura, ) shows that viewing aggression increases the likelihood of the viewer acting aggressively and when the model is reinforced by praise, children learn that aggressive behavior is rutadeltambor.coms: In psychology, the term aggression refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to yourself, others, or objects in the rutadeltambor.com type of behavior centers on harming another person either physically or mentally.
It can be a sign of an underlying mental health disorder, a substance use disorder, or a . As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. “However, the link between violence in video games and increased aggression in players is one of the most studied and best established in the field.” “No single risk factor consistently leads a person to act aggressively or violently,” the report states.