During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included Finland. Untilthe kings of Uppsala ruled most of modern Sweden except the southern and western coastal regions, which remained under Danish rule until the 17th century. After a century of civil wars, a new royal family emerged, which strengthened the power of the crown at the expense of the nobility, while giving the nobles privileges such as exemption from taxation in exchange for military service. Sweden never had a fully developed feudal system, and its peasants were never reduced to serfdom.
When he Nevertheless, it would be wrong to lose sight of more conventional considerations in the motives and conduct of the belligerent powers. The leaders of the French Revolution took over and expanded traditional objectives of French foreign policy.
The British especially, being geographically insulated and having a more liberal constitution than their Continental allies, were concerned far less with combating Revolutionary ideology than with preventing French attempts to create a Continental hegemony.
In contracting a series of alliances with the powers of the First Coalition inGreat Britain indeed insisted that they abandon their demands for a royalist restoration virtually, unconditional surrenderso that ultimate war aims were left uncertain. The British sought to uphold a balance of power in Europe that would enable them to affirm their control of the seas, to extend their colonial conquests, and to achieve predominance as a trading and manufacturing nation both beyond Europe and on the Continent.
The wars of the Revolution and of the First Empire were the culmination of an intermittent Franco-British conflict that had begun with the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession.
Great Britain, with a population not much more than one-third that of France independed for its strength on preponderance in commerce and manufactures.
Thus it remained preoccupied with the sources and maintenance of wealth, which required that military efforts should be concentrated on naval and colonial affairs.
Great Britain, however, saw that if the French could impose peace on their own terms on Europe, they would be free to mobilize their resources against the British at sea and in the colonies and to close the European markets essential to British commerce.
Therefore Great Britain, alone of all the coalition powers ranged against France, remained at war for virtually the entire duration of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, pursuing a strategy dominated by maritime, colonial, and economic motives.
The divergences in interests and objectives between the British and their European allies explain some of the dissensions which arose in the allied camp and also the hostility that Great Britain was to encounter among the neutral powers.
By blockading French-held ports and issuing licences to control trade with the enemy bloc, the British advanced their own interests to the detriment or at least the expense of the neutrals. Thus, broadly speaking, throughout the wars from toGreat Britain devoted the profits from an increasingly advantageous position in world trade to furthering the struggle with France, while the French, since they could not match British maritime power, were obliged to master Europe if they were to turn the tables on Great Britain strategically and economically.
Only twice in the Revolutionary wars did small British expeditionary forces fight in Europe, and then only in Holland, in and By some 60, British troops had fallen in largely indecisive fighting in the West Indies.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellingtonwould suffer fewer losses during his campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula —14which not only reconquered Spain and Portugal but also tied down a far larger number of French troops.
The British government was unique in its ability to undertake an enormous debt in order to finance its own war effort and to subsidize that of its allies.
The great expansion of the British national income, however, was at that time due more to unusually favourable terms of trade in conventional goods produced by largely traditional means than to the initiation of the Industrial Revolution —the distinguishing characteristics of which belong to the years after Two factors contributed considerably to the outbreak and to the course of the early years of the French Revolutionary wars: The unprecedented successes of the French in the Revolutionary wars were due to their advantages in numbers; to the fact that France, even before the Revolution, was in many respects the most developed nation on the Continent; and finally to the often contradictory effects of Revolutionary ideals and methods.
The first French Republic could afford to be prodigiously wasteful of its resources in making war. These novel developments, however, lay several years ahead, when the Continental powers undertook to make war on Revolutionary France. Indeed, in very large part the most striking characteristics of French Revolutionary warfare, together with the men and the domestic policies of the Jacobin Committee of Public Safety with whom it is associated, owed their appearance to the first successes of the invaders.
This threat to the new regime inspired the Terrorits radical political reforms, and the massive mobilization of national resources.
For Great Britain the many complexities of the European scene during the first three years of the French Revolution were problems of secondary importance, since the influence of the chief rival state on the Continent had been largely neutralized by internal dissension.
Inevitably, Great Britain was less concerned by developments in eastern and central Europe, and less than a year before the outbreak of war with France February prime minister William Pitt, the Younger reduced the strength of the home army from 17, to 13, When war came, Pitt, with most of his countrymen, anticipated that it would soon be over.
The expedients adopted in recruiting land forces during the first years of the war were not particularly efficient. In order to free regular regiments, which were recruited wholly from volunteers, for service overseas, 30, militiamen were called up in for home defense.
As it was permissible to pay a substitute to perform militia service, the recruitment of regular formations suffered in consequence. Europe during the Revolutionary years The last years of the s and the early s had been marked by a general instability in European affairs which considerably affected the position of the Continental powers.
In the Dutch Republic the stadholder, William V of Orangehad been assisted by Prussia and Great Britain in his difficulties with the democratic party supported by France. It was intended to oppose French influence in Dutch affairs and Russian and Austrian designs against Poland and Turkey.
In Prussia came close to declaring war on Russia and Austriahaving urged Sweden to invade Russia and the Poles to seek the return of Russian annexations. Dissatisfied with the course of Prussian policy and desiring to strengthen the Austrian Netherlands against France, Great Britain welcomed the chance of a rapprochement with Austria.
Dangerously isolated, Prussia came to terms with Austria at Reichenbach July 27, and even suggested a common front against the French Revolution in which the possibility of annexing some French territory might arise.
Ongoing Russian and Austrian hostilities with Turkey prevented effective action by the Continental powers against France. Peace with Turkey was signed finally by Austria on August4,and peace preliminaries by Russia on August Soon, however, tension grew up in central Europe.
At the end of Catherine the Great had brought a Russian army ofto the Polish frontier. Though it was prepared to offer Austria and Prussia a share of the spoils should they oppose its designs on Poland, the Russian government declared its enthusiasm for a monarchical alliance against France—both in order to cover its intentions against Poland and in the hope of directing Prussian and Austrian attention to the west.
Thus it is clear that France had occupied a secondary place in the minds of European leaders until mid Events in France, far from inspiring the powers with the zeal that they professed for a monarchical crusade, had encouraged them to seek advantages in the east while the French were preoccupied with their internal affairs.During this time, Napoleon instituted a number of important Enlightened reforms.
The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law codes, social and legal equality, property rights, and end feudal dues.
Was imperialism in the period between and simply a manifestation of the new nationalism? The typology offered attempts to distinguish between these various contemporary manifestations of nationalist sentiment and discusses their impact on democracy as a means of distinguishing between the progressive and reactionary forms of nationalism.
Historical and Conceptual Background The historical paradoxes of nationalism. Nationalism and Sectionalism. Monroe to Election of Andrew Jackson. After end of War of , Americans experienced a new surge of Nationalism, a sense of economic well-being created by abnormal economic prosperity, and a period in which the prestige of the national government was enhanced.
During the Cold War the United States dropped its historic support for national self-determination, partly from a sense that German National Socialism, Italian fascism, and Japanese imperialism had discredited nationalism, but mainly out of a fear of instability, that might be exploited by the communist bloc.
The Greek War for Independence was one of the most nationalistic movements during that time. After being occupied by the Ottomans for almost years, the Greek stood up with pride and fought the Ottomans which were later on defeated.