The Visigoths were Arian Christians, followers of Arius who reasoned that Jesus could not logically co-exist with God and must therefore be subservient to him. Subsequently, the Church was to exert powerful influence on all aspects of social life. Almost immediately, in C.
The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn. At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end.
They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s. This was followed, after the middle of the century, by the formalism and balance of neoclassicism, with its resurrection of Greek and Roman models.
In painting, rococo emphasized the airy grace and refined pleasures of the salon and the boudoir, of delicate jewelry and porcelains, of wooded scenes, artful dances, and women, particularly women in the nude. Rococo painters also specialized in portraiture, showing aristocratic subjects in their finery, idealized and beautified on canvas.
The rococo painting of Antoine Watteau blended fantasy with acute observations of nature, conveying the ease and luxury of French court life. Italian painters, such a Giovanni Tiepoloalso displayed rococo influences.
English painting lacked the characteristic rococo frivolity, but the style affected works by Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsboroughwhose portraits tended to flatter their aristocratic subjects. Eighteenth-century neoclassicism in painting is difficult to separate from some works in the era of Louis XIV.
Both Charles Le Brun and Nicolas Poussin had earlier projected order and balance, often in grandiose scenes from antiquity or mythology. Jean Chardin carried some of this over into the s. The neoclassic approach, however, often expressed powerful dissatisfaction and criticism of the existing order, sometimes in stark realism and sometimes in colossal allegory.
The most typical representative of this approach was Jacques Louis Davidwhose most famous work, Death of Socrates illustrates his respect for Greco-Roman tradition.
His sketch of Marie Antoinette enroute to the guillotine clearly represents his revolutionary sympathies. The best examples of pure realism and social criticism are the London street scenes by the English painter William Hogarth and the Spanish court portraits of Francisco Goya The number of women painters increased during the eighteenth century, but they were so limited by traditions and so dependent upon public favor that they could hardly maintain consistent styles.
Very few were admitted to academies, where their work might be shown; in France, they were not permitted to work with nude models.
The result was their practical restriction to still-life and portraiture. Among rococo painters, the two best-known were Rachel Ruyscha court painter of flowers in Dusseldorf, and Rosalba Carrieraa follower of Watteau, who was admitted to the French Academy in If possible, they were overshadowed by Angelica Kaufmanna Swiss-born artist who painted in England and Italy.
All three were celebrated intheir time. Each produced grand scenes in the neoclassical style, but their market limited them to flattering portraits, at which they excelled. Neoclassicism also found expression in architecture and sculpture. Architecture was marked by a return to the intrinsic dignity of what a contemporary called "the noble simplicity and tranquil loftiness of the ancients.
In England, where the classical style had resisted baroque influences, the great country houses of the nobility now exhibited a purity of design, which often included a portico with Corinthian columns.The descendants of Jews who left Spain or Portugal after the expulsion are referred to as Sephardim.
The word “Sephardim” comes from the Hebrew word for Spain, Sepharad, that is stated in the Bible.. It is believed that Jews have lived in Spain since the era of King Solomon (c B.C.E.).Little information can be found on these Jews until the beginning of the first century.
The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age of Enlightenment" and rightfully so, for Europe had dwelled in the dim glow of the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in men's minds and humankind moved forward.
The History Cooperative is a collective of history buffs, interested authors, and dedicated technical staff who share a love for history. If you would love to help share this love, you can start by filling out a contribution form here.
If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade. In the midth century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The culture of France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
France, and in particular Paris, has played an important role as a center of high culture since the 17th century, first in Europe, and from the 19th century on, worldwide.
From the late 19th century, France has also played an important role.